The non-SEF way
Navigate to yourdomain.com/administrator/index.php?option=com_content and get the ID of article you wish to get the link for. For example, if you want to get the link for Article 4, copy the associated ID ie. 4 as shown in below screenshot
Now all you need to do to access the article is, paste the ID in "yourdomain.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=XX" where XX will be the article ID which you grabbed in the previous step.
By this method, you will get a dynamic link which is not be something which your website visitors can remember. So, the SEF way should be preferred if you want to link to Joomla articles.
The SEF way to get link of articles
Create a menu item by going to yourdomain.com/administrator/index.php?option=com_menus&view=menu&layout=edit , name it linker as shown in below screenshot and hit "Save & Close"
Now add a menu item under the "Linker" menu you just created, with menu item type "Single Article" and the article as the article you want to get the link to.
As in the above example, name the menu item for your reference. Choose alias such that, the article will be loaded when you type yourdomain.com/alias
That's it! You just created a menu item for the article to get link to the article. As the menu "linker" is not shown in the frontend via a module, it wouldnt be accessible. You can create more menu items under linker to get links to further articles.